Appropriate Practices

APPROPRIATE PRACTICES; NATIONAL STANDARDS; TEKS; TAKS

Presentation and Application

Kinesiology 4500

What is Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education?

Background

1992 development by Council on Physical Education for Children (COPEC)

purpose

provide guidelines for teachers, parents, administrators, policy makers

identify practices appropriate for children’s physical education programs

Position Premises

Quality, daily for all children

Developmentally appropriate programming

age appropriate

individually appropriate (NAEYC, 1986)

Outcome = individual who is "physically educated"

Physically Educated Individual

1990 definition - NASPE

HAS learned skills

DOES participate regularly

IS physically fit

KNOWS implications/benefits

VALUES physical activity

Premises cont’d

Differences between physical education & athletics

Children not miniature adults

Children in school today not adults in TODAY’s world

Why Is This Important for Me?

Future/current teachers

Assist in recognizing practices in best interest of children

Interrelated components of document - applicability

Assist in "selling" best programming to:

administrators

parents

policy makers

Components: Examples and Non-Examples

CURRICULUM

Developmentally appropriate

scope & sequence

goals & objectives

balance of components

Developmentally inappropriate

lack of goals & objectives

programming based on teacher’s interests

many large group games utilized

DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC MOTOR SKILLS & CONCEPTS

Developmentally appropriate

appropriate practice opportunities = concept development

movement education/framework basis

variety of locomotor, non-locomotor, manipulative skills

Developmentally inappropriate

limited opportunities for participation

lack of opportunities to develop basic concepts and motor skills

restricted "active time"

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Developmentally appropriate

activities designed with developmental level(s) of students (physical & cognitive)

experiences encourage problem solving, analysis, application of concepts

experiences encourage multicultural view

experiences encourage integration of content across disciplines

Developmentally inappropriate

lack of multicultural awareness

few interdisciplinary experiences

AFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT

Developmentally Appropriate

activities lead to improvement of social & cooperation skills

positive self-concept from accomplishing skill acquisition

Developmentally Inappropriate

lack of cooperative skill attainment

lack of fostering of social skills

FITNESS DEVELOPMENT

Developmentally Appropriate

value & importance of fitness

contribution of fitness to healthy lifestyle

Developmentally Inappropriate

participation in fitness activities require

little understanding of relationship presented

PHYSICAL FITNESS TESTS

Developmentally Appropriate

part of ongoing process of physical health & well-being

test results shared privately

Developmentally Inappropriate

tests given as requirement

lack of application

DANCE/RHYTHMICAL EXPERIENCES

Developmentally Appropriate

variety of expressive, rhythmical experiences provided

Developmentally Inappropriate

no inclusion of rhythmical, expressive or cultural experiences provided

dance forms limited to folk & square

EDUCATIONAL GYMNASTICS

Developmentally Appropriate

broad areas of balance, rolling, weight transfer introduced

skills are appropriate to confidence levels and ability levels

Developmentally Inappropriate

all students perform pre-determined stunts

routines are competitive for grade

routines performed solo

GAMES WITH PURPOSE

Developmentally Appropriate

games selected & modified to maximize learning & enjoyment

Developmentally Inappropriate

games have no purpose

games keep children "busy, happy, good"

games have no sequence or relationship to skills

RULES GOVERNING GAME PLAY

Developmentally Appropriate

official rules modified for ability levels

Developmentally Inappropriate

official rules applied

success rates low

enjoyment low

ELIMINATION ACTIVITES

Developmentally Appropriate

all children involved

continuous focus on active time

Developmentally Inappropriate

elimination games played; students sit out for long time frame

limited opportunities provided for students of lower ability

FORMING TEAMS

Developmentally Appropriate

dignity of children preserved

knowledge of skill abilities used

children form teams cooperatively

Developmentally Inappropriate

teams formed by captains

boys against girls

NUMBER OF CHILDREN ON A TEAM

Developmentally Appropriate

allowance for numerous practice opportunities

allowance for various aspects of game emphasized

Developmentally Inappropriate

few practice opportunities

lack of active time

COMPETITION

Developmentally Appropriate

activities emphasize self-improvement

winning & losing de-emphasized

appropriate levels of game play promoted

Developmentally Inappropriate

label of "winner" & "loser"

performance comparison

ACTIVE PARTICIPATION FOR EVERY CHILD

Developmentally Appropriate

active time majority of class

Developmentally Inappropriate

active time limited

children waiting in lines

lack of equipment

groups too large

SUCCESS RATE

Developmentally Appropriate

activities adjusted for skill levels

Developmentally Inappropriate

activities too hard, too easy = frustration, boredom

all children perform same activities

CLASS SIZE

Developmentally Appropriate

class size same as classroom

Developmentally Inappropriate

two or more classrooms with one teacher or aide

DAYS PER WEEK/LENGTH OF CLASS TIME

Developmentally Appropriate

regularly scheduled physical education; not recess (daily if possible)

Developmentally Inappropriate

no daily physical education

age/developmental levels not considered when schedules developed

 

FACILITIES

Developmentally Appropriate

adequate space

class space inside & outside provided

Developmentally Inappropriate

classes regularly held in hallway; classroom

EQUIPMENT

Developmentally Appropriate

equipment available = maximum benefits

variety of types of equipment available = size/level of children

Developmentally Inappropriate

insufficient equipment

"adult size" equipment only available

 

REMOVING CHILDREN FROM PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS

Developmentally Appropriate

regular participation

physical education important part of regular education

Developmentally Inappropriate

children removed as punishment

children removed to participate in class activities

 

PE AS RECESS

Developmentally Appropriate

planned physical education program

Developmentally Inappropriate

"free play" or recess used as substitute for organized, daily physical education programming

lack of goals, objectives & organization

FIELD DAYS

Developmentally Appropriate

every child participates

children choose from variety of activities

focus on enjoyment

Developmentally Inappropriate

intense team, group, individual competition

winners/losers clearly identified

few children participate

Program Evaluation Tool

(Morford, 1997)

34 points to consider

program evaluation- where are we?

GENERIC LEVELS OF SKILL PROFICIENCY

Observable Characteristics

Precontrol

child is unable to repeat movements in succession

many extraneous movements used

child frequently doesn’t come close to correct performance

object controls child

 

 

Control Level

movements less haphazard

movements more consistent

child cannot successfully combine skills in dynamic situation

intense concentration

 

Utilization Level

movement more automatic

movement successful in predictable situations

movement successful in slightly varied situation

child successfully performs skill in combination with other skill

Proficiency Level

skill automatic

unpredictable situations = success

movement seems effortless

child successful in planned/unplanned situations

Questions to Ask When Developing Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum

WHO is the student?

Who is the "population?"

WHY = learner outcomes

what expectations follow learning?

WHERE = facilities/environment

what is available?

WHEN = scheduling

how often do students meet?

 

WHAT = content

activity categories

HOW = delivery of content

strategies used to deliver developmentally appropriate curriculum

National Standards

Purpose

establish content standards for physical education program

establish guidelines for assessment of content standards

7 Content Standards in Physical Education

demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms

applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills

exhibits a physically active lifestyle

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)

Outlining major content areas; performance descriptors; student performance expectations

Activities provided as guide to TEKS statements

Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness

demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity settings

Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS)

Activities have TAAS correlation

decision making based on conclusions

drawing conclusions

letter recognition

sound recognition

Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings

understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction