Reflective Teaching


Reflective teachers:

skills employed by individuals who are respected as master teachers (Graham, 2004)

one who can design and implement an educational program that is congruent with idiosyncrasies of a particular school situation

take time to consider what they did & effect on students in relation to goals


Why effective teaching is important

Student growth

Engaged students

Variety of instructional strategies

Academic learning time

Clear expectations

Value on content

Reflective Teaching

Interact with environment

two critical questions

"What’s worth doing?"

"Is what I’m doing working?"

other critical questions to ask yourself

thinking about political, moral, social implications of what/how we teach

Why bother?

4 convictions (Hellison & Templin, 1991)

Teaching is complex

Teaching is a personal process

What is a good P.E. program? (Standards; Dev. Appro. Document)

Thinking is important

Critical questions continued . . .

What is your choice of subject matter?

How is this decided?

How do you solve problems that might arise?

How can you individualize activities so all are accommodated?

Uses one approach in all teaching situations

Is not willing to look at the environment and each situation (class)

Allows others to make decisions

Uses same activities year after year

Components of Reflective vs Invariant Teaching

Variable    Reflective    Invariant

planning    adjusts lesson    same

method    variety        same for all

activities    progression    no chg.

equipment    modifies    no option

discipline    affective    punitive

evaluates    regularly    sporadic

Variables Illustrating the Need for Reflective Teaching

Personal altitudes & beliefs of teachers

Class size

Number of class sessions

Facilities and equipment


Context of school

Reflective Teaching = Effective Teaching

Time, opportunity to learn, content covered

sufficient time allotted to necessary content

multiple opportunities to learn content

Expectations and roles

high, realistic expectations

role of teacher and student clearly defined

Classroom management & student engagement

routines established and reinforced

management is positive

Meaningful tasks and high success

meaningful activities provided

tasks suited to developmental level(s) of students

Pacing & momentum

success ensured

pacing fits lesson and students

Active teaching

effective demonstrations

guided practice

Active supervision

independent practice

teacher monitors progress


variety of mechanisms used

Clarity, enthusiasm, warmth

warm classroom climate